Table of Contents
Summary Information
 Repository

Shelby White and Leon Levy Archives Center, Institute for Advanced Study, Historical StudiesSocial Science Library, Einstein Drive, Princeton, NJ 08540
 Creator
 Neugebauer, O. (Otto), 18991990
 Title
 Otto Neugebauer papers
 ID
 MEM.NEUGEBAUER
 Date [inclusive]
 19171990
 Date [bulk]
 Bulk, 19211955
 Extent
 13.25 linear feet (in 14 boxes)
 Language
 German
 Language of Materials note
 Materials in German and English.
Preferred Citation note
The suggested citation for the material is "Otto Neugebauer papers, Box [box number], Courtesy of The Shelby White and Leon Levy Archives Center, Institute for Advanced Study, Princeton, NJ, USA."
Biographical/Historical note
Otto Neugebauer was born on May 26, 1899 in Innsbruck, Austria. His parents died when he was young and he was raised by an uncle. He attended Gymnasium in Graz, then served in the Austrian army upon graduation in 1917. During World War I he spent a year in an Italian prisonerofwar camp, where he met Ludwig Wittgenstein. From 1919 to 1921 he studied electrical engineering and physics at the University of Graz. He transferred to the University of Munich in 1921, where he studied with physicist Arnold Sommerfeld and mathematician Arthur Rosenthal. He then moved to the University of Göttingen, where he assisted mathematician Richard Courant and supervised the university's mathematical reading room. (Neugebauer later designed Göttingen's new mathematical institute, built in 1929.) He completed his Ph.D. on Egpytian fractions in 1926, and received his venia legendi in 1927. He also received an Ll.D. from St. Andrews University in Scotland in 1938.
He remained at Göttingen, was appointed an associate professor in 1932, and named acting director of the mathematical institute in 1933, in the wake of the firing of the Jewish mathematican Courant by the Nazi regime. Neugebauer himself was later fired after refusing to take the Nazi loyalty oath. Harald Bohr arranged for Neugebauer to become a professor at the University of Copenhagen, where he remained until 1939. Neugebauer was then brought to Brown University in the United States to edit a new journal titled
Mathematical Reviews.
Mathematical Reviews was modeled on the influential
Zentralblatt für Mathematik und ihre Grenzgebiete, which Neugebauer had founded in 1931 and edited until the influence of Nazi policies on the editorial process caused him to resign in protest in 1938. He continued with the new journal until 1948.
In 1945 he and his collaborator Abraham Sachs were invited by Hermann Weyl to spend the year as members of the School of Mathematics at the Institute for Advanced Study. This was the beginning of Neugebauer's long association with the Institute. He returned as a member for the second semester of the 19491950 academic year, then was offered a fiveyear membership beginning with the 19501951 year. Duties at Brown prevented him from accepting fully, but he made arrangements to be at the Institute "for one term every second year." In later years, he was in residence a great deal more often than the original agreement. While he retired from Brown in 1969, he held a permanent appointment at the Institute from 1980 until his death. Unusually, he was active in three schools, the School of Mathematics, the School of Humanistic Studies (later Historical Studies), and the School of Natural Sciences during his long affiliation with the Institute.
Neugebauer was a prolific writer, and published on a range of topics, including Babylonian mathematics, mediaeval astronomy, and chronology. Among his books were the threevolume
A History of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy (1975), the threevolume
Astronomical Cuneiform Texts (1955), and
The Exact Sciences in Antiquity (1951, with a second edition in 1957). Near the end of his career his notes on Copernicus' "De Revolutionibus" were published in collaboration with Noel Swerdlow. He received many awards and honors, including the Balzan Prize (1986) and the Franklin Medal of the American Philosophical Society (1987), and was a member of the National Academy of Sciences and the Académie des Inscriptions et BellesLettres, among other international affiliations.
He married Grete Bruck, a fellow mathematics student, in 1927. They had two children, a daughter, Margo, and a son, Gerald.
Neugebauer died on February 19, 1990.
Scope and Contents note
The Otto Neugebauer papers consist largely of his notebooks on a range of topics. The collection also contains the manuscript and related correspondence for
Astronomical Cuneiform Texts, one diary, and correspondence with Edward S. Kennedy.
Arrangement note
The collection has been arranged into five series: Notebooks,
Astronomical Cuneiform Texts, Copernicus Notes, Diary and Correspondence, and Publications.
Administrative Information
Conditions Governing Access note
The collection is open without restriction.
Immediate Source of Acquisition note
Neugebauer left instructions that the bulk of his library be left to the Institute for Advanced Study for disposition after his death. The notebooks were found among the items in his library. He had previously donated the most of the volumes of publications (library acquisition 84B1019), with one small volume added by the Historical StudiesSocial Science Library in 1993. The files related to Astronomical Cuneiform Texts and Copernicus notes were donated by John P. Britton on behalf of the family of Asger Aaboe in 2007. (Neugebauer had given the materials to Aaboe for disposition after his death.) The diary and correspondence with Edward S. Kennedy were donated by Kennedy in 1997.
Processing Information note
The materials were inventoried in 2009. The finding aid was written by Christine Di Bella in 2009.
Controlled Access Headings
Personal Name(s)
 Kennedy, E. S. (Edward Stewart), 1912
Subject(s)
 Mathematics, Ancient
Collection Inventory
Notebooks 19101951 9.5 linear feetScope and Contents noteThe Notebooks series consists of lecture notes and notes Neugebauer compiled on various subjects. The lecture notes mainly concern courses at the University of Munich and University of Göttingen given by such eminent mathematicians as Edmund Landau, Richard Courant, Theodor Radakovic, Roland Weitzenböck and Emmy Noether. Photocopies are also present for a number of the notebooks. A select number of these have been digitized and are available in PDF format. (Adobe Acrobat Reader or the equivalent is necessary to view these files.) The PDF files are linked from the entry in the finding aid when they are available. 

Box  
Geschichte der Geometrie bis Euclid 1929 
1  
Astonomie und geschichte des Altertums 1938 
1  
Vorlesungen des babylonische Astronomie, teil 1 1937 
1  
Vorgriechische Mathematik 1934 Existence and Location of Copies notealso available as photocopies in Box 10 
1  
Ausg Kapitel des Geschichte 19321933 
1  
Geschichte der Antiken Mathematik nach Euclid 1932 
1  
Darstellende Geometrie 19291930 
1  
Geschichte der vorgriechische Mathematik 1928 
1  
Geschichte des antichen Mathematik 193031 
1  
[Notebook with various documents relating to early Greek Astronomy] 
1  
Babylonische Rechentabellen undated Scope and Contents notealso available as photocopies in Box 8 
1  
Bound offprint from Transactions of the American Phil. Soc. (see also photocopy in Box 10 under title: Egyptian Planetary Texts, On Some Astronomical Papyri and Related Problems of Ancient Geograpy (from Transactions of the American Philosophical Society) v. 32:2 
1  
Babylonische Astronomie 1936 
1  
w/ Vorlesungen uber 
1  
Ancient Astronomy III, Babyl., Planet theory (chap. IIIIV) 
1  
Ancient Astronomy IV, Egypt, Early Greek (chap. IIIIV) 
1  
Ancient Astronomy V, Roman, Imperial Period (chap. V) 
2  
Ancient Astronomy VI:1, India (chap. VI) 
2  
Ancient Astronomy VI:2, Islam, Byzantium (chap. VII) 
2  
Ancient Astronomy VII, Middle Ages, appendices (chap. VIIIIX, App.) 
2  
India Ia which includes N's notes on The Aryabhatiya of Aryabhata / Clark, Chicago 1930. 
2  
(India Ib) PancaSiddhantika by Varahamihira / ed. Thibant  Driridi (1889) [appears to be N's notes] 
2  
Varahamihira Brhatsamhita / Kern. Varahamihira Brhatjatakia /Sastri. 1929. notes on (note this item missing from box9.09) 
2  
incomplete MSS of Kern. John Warren Kala sankalita. 1825. and 4 other items (note this item missing from box9.09) 
2  
Catalogue of topics v. I, AF 
2  
Catalogue of topics v. II, GZ 
2  
UAA I bis UAA III: Untersuchungen zur Antiken Astronomie 1937 (see also photocopy in Box 9 under title: Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte der Mathematik Astronomie und Physik) 
2  
Ancient Astronomy I:1 Almagest, lunar theory (A history of Ancient Mathematical Astronomy, chapter 1) 
3  
Ancient Astronomy I:2 Almagest, planets 
3  
Ancient Astronomy II Babyl. lunar theory (chapter 2 
3  
History of Mathematics II (Select chapters in the History of Mathematics 19501951) 
3  
chap. 1 Numbers, chap. 2 Theory of numbers. 
3  
History of Mathematics. Notes. 
3  
History of science and technology (with chapters on water, city planning, Masses, vault and cupola 
3  
Islam IIa. alKhawrizmi. text. (the Zig of alKhwanizmi: translated from the Arabic by Atheland of Bath) 
3  
Ancient Chronology : an introduction to Methods and problems of Astronomical Chronology. (in two binders) Existence and Location of Copies notein 2 binders; also available as photocopies in Box 8 (binder 1) [http://cdm.itg.ias.edu/cdm/ref/collection/coll12/id/787] (binder 2) 
3  
Almagest / Ptolemy. I: books I to IV 
4  
Almagest / Ptolemy. II: books V and VI 
4  
Almagest / Ptolemy. III: books VII to XII 
4  
Black Books I and 2 (Babylonische Mondtheorie Heft 12) 
4  
Black Books 3 (Babylonische Mondtheorie Heft 3) 
4  
Select chapters in the history of Mathematics (1948/49) 
4  
India III. Brahmagupta, Prthudaka, Parahitaganita, etc. 
4  
Sphaerica. Autolycus. Euclid. 
4  
Sphaerica. Theodosius. 
4  
Sphaerica. Theod. Hab. Pappus VI 
4  
Varia. Astron. I. 
5  
Varia. Astron. 2. 
5  
Varia. Astron. 3. 
5  
Varia. Astron. 4. 
5  
Handy tables which form a portion of the preceding title, 2 binders. 
5  
Ptolemaeus Opera Minora. (Planisphaerium, Analemma, Phases of the fixed stars, Planetary Hypothesis 
5  
(book 1) and canobic inscriptions, final ms., Ptolemy Tetrabiblos) 
5  
India II. Surya Siddhanta (Translator Burgess 
5  
Syriac (Bar Hebraeus, L'ascension de l'esprit/ F. Nau, transl. Paris : 1899. Severus Sebokht. Constellations 
5  
Rev. de l'Orient Chretien 15, 1910 p. 227 
5  
Copernicus De Revolutionibus, IIV 
6  
Copernicus De Revolutionibus, V, VI 
6  
Copernicus Residua 
6  
Minor Authors (Achilles; Aristarchus; Archimedes, Sand Reckoner; Chalcidius; Cleomedes; Geminus; Philoponus; Severus Sebokht; Theon Smyrnaeus) 
6  
Pappus of Alexandria, Commentary to Book IV of the Almagest 
6  
Vettius Valens 
6  
Vorlesung uber Analytische Geometrie 1926 
7  
Analytische Geometrie I, II 19311932 
7  
Landau, Zahlentheorie  I. Hauptteil. Die Riemannsche ZetaFunktion 
7  
Landau, Zahlentheorie  II. Hauptteil. Theorie der Gitterpunkte 
7  
Warmelehre, Vorlesungen von Prof. Radakovic 
7  
Vorlesungen uber Relativitats Theorie, von Prof. Radakovic und Prof. Weitzenbock 
7  
Elektrizitat, Vorlesungen von Prof. Radakovic 
7  
Theorie der Strahlung, Vorlesungen von Prof. Radakovic 
7  
Landau, Trigonometrische Reihen 19221923 
7  
Landau, Picardseher Satz 
7  
Landau, Ganze Transcendente Funktionen 19221923 
7  
Dampfuronchinen? Theorie (3 volumes) 
7  
Quantenmechanik der Atommodelle, Dr. Herzfeld 19211922 
7  
Sommerfeld, ?? aus der Maxwellichen Theorie 19211922 
7  
Rosenthal, Theorie der rullen Funktionen 19211922 
7  
Hilbert, Statistische Methoden and Born, Kinetische Theorie der Materie 
7  
E. Noether, Algebraische Funktionen (title page in second volume) 1925 
7  
Herglotz, Vorlesungen uber Himmelsmechanik 19261927 
7  
Seminar fur Theoretische Physik, Prof. Radakovic 1920 
7  
Vorlesungen uber Differentialgleichungen und mehrfache Integrale, Prof. Weitzenbock, and Courant, Partialle Differentialgleichungen 19201922 
7  
Unlabeled notebook 
7  
Photocopies 

Box  
Planisphaerium 1948 
8  
Handy Tables  1. Tables 
8  
Handy Tables  2. Comm. 
8  
Chronology I Existence and Location of Copies note 
8  
History of Mathematics I 
8  
History of Mathematics II 
8  
History of Science & Technology 
8  
History of Mathematics Notes 
8  
Ancient Astronomy III 
8  
Chronology II Existence and Location of Copies note 
8  
Ancient Astronomy I, 1 
8  
Ancient Astronomy I, 2 
8  
Ancient Astronomy II 
8  
Ancient Astronomy IV 
8  
Ancient Astronomy V 
8  
Rechentabellen zur sumerischakkadischen Mathematik Existence and Location of Copies note 
8  
Quellen und Studien zur Geschichte der Mathematik Astronomie und Physik (see also Box 2 under title: UAA I bis UAA III: Untersuchungen zur Antiken Astronomie 1937) 
9  
Early Greek Astronomy 
9  
Ancient Astronomy VI, 1 
9  
Ancient Astronomy VI, 2 
9  
Sphaerica  Autolycus, Euclid 
9  
Sphaerica  Theodosius 
9  
Almagest IIV 
9  
Ptolemy  Almagest II  Books V and VI 
9  
Ptolemy  Almagest III  Books VIXIII 
9  
Vorlesungen uber babylonische Astronomie  Teil II 1937 
10  
Vorlesungen uber babylonische Astronomie  Teil I  NeumondRechnung 1936 
10  
Vorlesungen uber babylonische Astronomie  Teil I  Die Berechnung der Neumonde 1936 
10  
Uber vorgriedische Mathematik 1934 Existence and Location of Copies note 
10  
Egyptian Planetary Texts, On Some Astronomical Papyri and Related Problems of Ancient Geograpy (from Transactions of the American Philosophical Society) (see also Box 1 under title : Bound offprint from Transactions of the American Phil. Soc. ) 1942 
10  
Astronomie und fuchihte des Altertums 1938 
10  
Geschichte der antiken Mathematik nach Euklid 1932 
10  
Unlabeled 
10  
Geschichte der antiken Mathematik 19301931 
10  
Ausgwahlte Kapitel der Geschichte der antiken Mathematik 19321933 
10  
Geschichte der Geometrie bis Euklid 1929 
10  


Astronomical Cuneiform Texts 19541955 1.25 linear feetScope and Contents noteThe 

Box  
Correspondence with "Humperdink" (Lund Humphries, publisher) to August 31, 1954 
11  
Correspondence with "Humperdink" (Lund Humphries, publisher) September 1 to December 31, 1954 
11  
Correspondence with "Humperdink" (Lund Humphries, publisher) 1955 
11  
Reviews 1955 
11  
Printed Manuscript 1954 
11  
Box  
General Introduction 
11  
Indices and Bibliography 
11  
Moon, Introduction 
11  
Planets, Ephemerides 
11  
Moon, Syst. A 
11  
Moon, Syst. B 
11  
Moon, Procedure Texts 
11  
Planets, Introduction 
11  
Part III, Planets  Introduction 
11  
Part III, Planets  Ephemerides 
11  
Part III, Planets  VI. Procedure Texts 
11  
Part IV  Fragmentary and Unidentified Texts 
11  
Part V  Indices and Bibliography 
11  
Plates I  Moon A 
11  
Plates I  Moon B 
11  
Plates II  Planets 
11  
Plates III  Fragments 
11  
Plates IV  Copies 
11  
Plates V  Photographs 
11  
Figures 
11  
Tables to be inserted in text 
11  
Supplem. Material  Pinches (crossed out) 
11  
Supplem. Material  unidentified symbol? (crossed out) 
11  
Plates I  Moon A 
11  
Plates I  Moon B 
11  
Plates II  Planets 
11  
Plates III  Fragments 
11  
Plates IV  Copies 
11  
Plates V  Photographs 
11  
Planets  Procedure Texts 
11  
Tables to be inserted in text 
11  
Figures 
11  
Printed Tables and Figures 
11  
Part I  General Introduction 
11  
Part II, Moon  Introduction 
11  
Part II, Moon  Ch. I. Syst. A 
11  
Part II, Chapter II  Moon System B 
11  
Part II, Moon  Procedure Texts 
11  
Fragments 
11  


Copernicus Notes 0.75 linear feetScope and Contents noteThe Copernicus Notes series contains Neugebauer's handwritten notes and typed manuscripts related to Copernicus' De Revolutionibus. Many of these were incorporated into Neugebauer and Noel M. Swerdlow's 1984 volume 

Box  
CuNi  Notes, Tables, Figures 
12  
Schweissloch  CuNi  Ch. 24 
12  
CuNi 
12  
CuNi  Ch. 5 
12  
KupferNickel  First Version (O.N.)  Text, Figures 
12  


Diary and Correspondence 19171990 0.5 linear feetScope and Contents noteThe series consists of a diary compiled while Neugebauer was serving in the army in World War I, correspondence with Edward S. Kennedy from 19501990, and a folder labeled "Vortrag über A.R.T. und Weyl" which contains handwritten lecture notes in German. The correspondence is Kennedy's set of the decades long exchange between the two men, and is rich in both professional and personal details. (Note that it appears that these papers may have gotten wet at some point before they were donated, as many pages are stuck together at one corner.) 

Box  
Tagebuch 19171919 Tagebuch  pages 58 to 72, 1919 [http://cdm.itg.ias.edu/cdm/ref/collection/coll12/id/8549] Tagebuch  excerpts, 19171919 
13  
E. S. Kennedy correspondence 19501965 
13  
E. S. Kennedy correspondence 19611976 
13  
E. S. Kennedy correspondence 19751983 
13  
E. S. Kennedy correspondence 19841990 
13  
Vortrag uber A.R.T. und Weyl 1921 
13  


Publications 19251987 11 volumesScope and Contents noteThe Publications series contains reprints and manuscripts for many of Neugebauer's articles, essays, and reviews. There are 11 volumes, and most are in chronological order, though volume 11 contains a variety of years. Volumes 14 have the title "Zur Geschichte der Mathematik." Volume 10 includes a bibliography. 

Box  
volume 1 19251927 
14  
1. Rezension. Peet, The Rhind mathematical Papyrus (Matematisk Tidsskrift A 1925) 

2. Dissertation, Maschinschriftexemplar mit Bermerkungen von Sethe 

3. Anzeige der ägyptischen Bruchrechnung bei Springer 

4. Dissertation. Die Grundlagen der ägyptischen Bruchrechnung 

5. Über die Mathematik im alten Ägypten. Vortrag Kiel 11.12.26 

6. Über die Konstruktion von sp "Mal" im mathematischen Papyrus Rhind (Zeitschrft für Ägyptische Sprache und Altertumskunde 62) 

7. Akademiegesuch für Rom, Februar 27 

8. Problemkreise der Mathematik in historischer Entwicklung (Phys. med. Ges. Würzburg Bd. 52) 

9. Über Geschichte der Mathematik (Universitätsbund Göttingen 9) 

9a. The History of Mathematics. Übers. v. Nr. 9 (1936) 

10. Zur Entstehung des Sexagesimalsystems (Abh. d. Ges. d. Wiss. Göttingen Math. Phys. Kl. NF 13, 1) 

11. Habilitationsgesuch Juni 27 

volume 2 19281931 
14  
volume 3 19321935 
14  
volume 4 19361937 
14  
I. Allegemeines 

1. Nachruf Julius Stenzel. QS B 3 1935 

2. Rez. Tropfke, Gesch. d. Elementarmath. III (3), Naturwiss. 1937 

3. Res. Schmidt, Gesch. d. geodät. Instrumente, QS B 3, 1936 

4. Rez. Mette, Sphairopoiia., QS B B 3, 1936 

5. Rez. Osiris, Vol. 1., QS B 3, 1936 

6. Rez. Datta and Singh, Hist. of Hindu math. 1., QS B 3, 1936 

7. Rez. Colerus, Von Pythagoras bis Hilbert, Naturwiss. 1937 

II. Antike Mathematik 

7a. Russische Übersetzung von "Vorgriechische Mathematik" (1934). Moskau 1937 

8. Waschow, BM 34568. Aus MKT III, 1937 

9. Über babylonische Mathematik. Scientia 1937 

10. Matematiske Kileskrifttekster. Mat. Tidsskr. B 1936 

11. Vortrag Congresso Intern. degli Orientalisti Roma 1935 

12. Über griech. Math. u. ihr Verhältnis z. vorgriechischen. Oslo 1936 

13. Overleveringen af bab. mat. Metoder gennem graeske Skrifter. Mat. Tidsskr. B 1937 

14. Zur geometrischen Algebra. QS B 3, 1936 

15. MKT III, Prospekt. 1937 

16. MKT III, Zbl.Referat 1937 

17. Rez. Bortolotti, Mat. babil. Scientia, Zbl. Referat 1937 

III. Antike Astronomie 

18. Res. Schaumberger, Erg. heft zu Kugler, Sternk. QS B 3, 1936 

19. Jahreszeiten u. Tageslängen i. d. bab. Astron. Osiris 2, 1936 

20. Über eine Untersuchungsmethode astron. Keilschrifttexte. ZDMG 90, 1936 

21. Untersuchungen z. antiken Astron. I. QS B 4, 1937 

22. Untersuchungen z. antiken Astron. II. QS B 4, 1937 

23. Untersuchungen z. antiken Astron. III. QS B 4, 1938 

24. Zum astron. PapyrusFragment Pap. Osl. 73. Symbolae Osloenses 17, 1937 

25, Rez. Rome, Commentaires de Pappus et de Théon. QS B 4, 1938 

26. Vortrag Akademie üb. MKT III und UAA II. 1937 

27. Vortrag Akademie üb. UAA III. 1937 

volume 5 19381942 
14  
volume 6 19421949 
14  
volume 7 19501956 
14  
volume 8 19591964 
14  
volume 9 19651975 
14  
volume 10 19761984 
14  
volume 11 19631987 
14  


Index of the Exact Sciences circa 19301990 


